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Arboriculture I

Course CodeBHT106
Fee CodeS2
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

Study Arboriculture to Learn About Tree Science

Arboriculture is the science of how trees grow and respond to their environment as well as how to nurture them.

Increasingly, tree care is recognised as an advanced science. We now understand the importance of regular attention being given to trees and, in studying this subject, you have a responsibility to monitor the trees you are seeing and let people know of their condition.

Work in Tree Care

This course is ideal for gardeners and landscapers wishing to add tree care to their skillset. It is also an ideal introduction to tree care for people considering working in tree surgery. 

  • Learn to Manage Trees.
  • Diagnose Tree Problems
  • Understand planting, feeding, watering, plant protection, pruning and tree surgery
  • Work in a tree crew, find a job, change vocation, or start a business
  • Self paced 100 hour course; study anywhere, anytime that suits


Lesson Structure

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction to Arboriculture
    • Trees in the garden
    • Planting in the right position
    • Choosing the right variety
    • Choosing the right specimen
    • How to plant different types of trees
    • Transplanting
    • Tree Guards
    • Using a Tree Report Form
  2. Tree Biology
    • Tree growth
    • Photosynthesis
    • Respiration
    • Transpiration
    • Vernilisation
    • What makes foliage change colour
    • Tree physiology, Roots, Stems, Leaves, Bud types
    • How a tree grows
    • Vascular tissue, Cambium, Xylem, Phloem
    • Secondary growth
    • Growth rings, Heartwood, Sapwood
    • Compartmentalisation
    • Water and plant growth
    • Growth rate factors
    • Arboricultural Terminology
  3. Soils In Relation to Trees
    • Fertilising
    • Compacted soils
    • Tree health and drainage
    • Treating soil over winter
    • Changed soil levels around trees
    • Measuring pH
    • Measuring soil organic content
    • Measuring water content
    • Determining fertiliser solubility
    • Testing affect of lime on soil
    • Laboratory testing of soils
    • Soil texture
    • Measuring salinity
    • Soil horizons, Soil Naming
    • Soil nutrition, Fertilisers, etc
  4. Diagnosing Tree Problems
    • Tree health disorders
    • Frost protection
    • Minimising frost and wind damage
    • Mulch and frost
    • Missletoe
    • Diagnosing problems
    • Conducting a Tree inspection
  5. Tree Surgery
    • Tree surgery-do you need it
    • Review of techniques
    • Tree surgery safety
    • Safety and the worker
    • Public safety
    • Safety regulations
    • Cavity treatments
    • Bracing, Cabling, Propping
    • Bark wounds
    • Tree climbing techniques
    • Knots, Anchoring points, etc.
  6. Pruning of Trees
    • Pruning objectives
    • Removing branches
    • Crown cleaning, Crown thinning, Crown reduction, Crown lifting, Crown renewal
    • Fruit tree pruning
    • Felling a whole tree
    • Felling sections of a tree
    • Terminology.
  7. Aboriculture Equipment
    • Secateurs, Hand saws, Power tools
    • Safety with electricity
    • Engine and tool maintenance
    • Chain saws, Hedge trimmers, Ladders
    • Harnesses, Ropes, Pole belt, Spurs, etc
  8. Workplace Health and Safety
    • Duty of Care
    • Lifting and manual handling
    • Protective equipment
    • Handling tools and machinery
    • Auditing tools and equipment

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.


  • Describe measures to provide healthy trees in different situations, including appropriate plant selection.
  • Explain tree biology, including morphology, anatomy and physiology, as it relates to arboriculture.
  • Develop procedures to manage soils for improved tree growth.
  • Develop procedures for managing health disorders with trees, including environmental, pest and disease problems.
  • Determine surgical techniques commonly used in arboriculture to repair damage to plants
  • Explain tree surgery techniques commonly used in arboriculture to prune growth.
  • Determine appropriate equipment for arboricultural practice.
  • Determine appropriate workplace health and safety practices for an arboricultural workplace.

What You Will Do

  • Distinguish between plants in order to identify at many different trees.
  • Develop a standard tree report form, customised for surveying the condition and use of trees in your locality.
  • Explain how to treat three specified soil related problems that can effect trees.
  • Develop a twelve month program, for managing a health problem detected by you in an established tree.
  • Demonstrate bridge grafting across a bark wound.
  • Distinguish between different methods of pruning including:
    • Canopy reduction
    • Cleaning out
    • Topiary
    • Espaliering
  • Determine the minimum equipment required to commence business as a tree surgeon.
  • Compare different chainsaws, to determine appropriate applications for each.
  • Determine legislation which is relevant to a specific arborist in a workplace which you visit.



Family Pittosporaceae

Approximately 150 species and many named cultivars of evergreen trees and shrubs. They have glossy, undivided leaves. Flowers are sometimes scented, and often colourful. Fruits are often colourful berries, which make an attractive display, and attract birds. There are cultivars to suit most temperate and sub tropical climates. Pittosporums occur naturally in both deserts & rainforests. Some make excellent hedging or screening plant. Some of the variegated types are widely grown for their foliage.

Most grow in either full sun or light shade and will do well in any average soil; as long as it isn’t waterlogged. Growth can be sporadic. They are generally very hardy once established. Pruning is not usually needed, except for shaping, although many can be readily shaped. Watering, feeding and mulching periodically will keep these plants healthier and looking better. Some are prone to attack from scale, and aphids. Leaf spots or stem rots are the most likely of very few disease problems.

Many are readily grown from seed. Named cultivars are usually propagated by leafy cuttings taken as terminal buds swell, before bursting, regardless of the time of year. And treated with hormone, and placed under mist, with bottom heat. They can be slow to strike at times.

P. bicolor - A shrub or tree 3 10m tall, grey bark, yellow flowers with red markings, from South East Australia.

P. crassifolium (Karo)  - Grows to 3m tall, leaves are oval shaped, thick, darker green on top and soft felt-like underneath. New growth is whitish and felt like; dark red flowers with yellow-tipped filaments. A variegated form with grey-green and white coloured foliage, is more commonly grown than the typical species.

P. eugenioides (Lemon wood)  - A tree to 5m tall, from a wide range of climates across both islands of New Zealand. Foliage is a glossy light green, flowers yellow, and yellowish fruits that eventually turn black. Many named varieties are available; usually 2-4m tall or shorter, and with variations in foliage colour (eg. Golden or white variegated foliage, etc).

P. moluccanum  - Grows to 4m tall, glossy green leaves, cream flowers, orange fruits, from Northern Australia.

P. phillyreoides  - A weeping upright tree to 6m tall, with open foliage, scented cream flowers in summer, orange fruits in autumn; and is drought tolerant.

P. revolutum   (Wild Yellow Jasmine)  - Shrub or tree to 6m tall, with yellow flowers, green fruits that change colour to brown, occurring naturally from the Northern Territory to Victoria.

P. rubiginosum  (Rusty Pittosporum)  - Tree to 5m tall, with pale green foliage, yellow to cream flowers.

P. tenuifolium (Kohuhu)  - To 5m tall and 3m diameter, black bark and bright green leaves that have a crinkled appearance. Sweetly fragrant flowers are bright purple when they burst open, but fade to black. There are many named cultivars grown, varying mainly in height and foliage colour. Some are small trees, others are shrubs as low as 1m or less.

P. tobira   -to 5.5m tall, fragrant white flowers in summer; there is also a lower growing form called P. tobira nana.

Family   Apocynaceae

Approximately 8 species of deciduous to semi-deciduous trees and shrubs. Leaves are simple, alternate & entire; stems are thick and fleshy; foliage is often scarce except at the ends of the stems. The flowers, which are often large and colourful emerge at the growing tips. Grown predominantly in tropical and sub-tropical areas for their showy, fragrant flowers. It can be used to provide summer shade for nearby plants, while allowing light to penetrate when leaves drop in winter.

Moist, but well drained, fertile soils are required for best results. Warm climates are preferable, as it is frost tender (they have been successfully grown in the south of Australia in positions protected from frost). Full sun is preferred though it is fairly adaptable. In cooler climates it is sometimes also be grown as a hothouse plant.  Regular feeding, and mulching are beneficial. Stem cuttings that are allowed to seal themselves in a cool shaded spot before planting. Frangipani may be attacked by scale, and in turn develop sooty mould. Drenching with soapy water above and below leaves should provide control. Diseases can include rust, and in wet conditions wood or stem rots which can be followed by borers attacking the rotting tissues. Provide good drainage to minimize this problem.

P. rubra - A frost tender, deciduous tree to 5m tall, with long, pointed, thick leaves, fleshy stems, and scented flowers of varying colour. P. rubra "acutifolia" is a  commonly grown variety with yellow & white flowers.



Family: Rosaceae

Approximately 200- 400 species of deciduous or evergreen trees and shrubs, mainly from temperate climates.  Leaves are simple and alternate. Ornamental varieties are grown for attractive flowers (often called blossom) or fruit. Flowering is normally profuse (ie. large numbers of flowers cover the entire plant) in late winter or early spring. Cropping varieties are grown for their edible fruits.

Prunus are temperate climate plants, hardy on most soils (except poorly drained ones), and best suited to places with a cold winter. Some require a hot summer, others a mild summer.  They all do best in full sun or very light shade. Most tolerate dry periods but should be watered during extended drought. Some “tropical” varieties of plums, apricots, peaches and nectarines, have been bred in recent years. These plants will perform reasonably well without needing the cold winter usually required by prunus.

Most varieties can be grown with minimal attention; however, to get the best from any prunus, they should be fertilised, watered and mulched periodically; pruned annually (normally in winter), and treated against pest and disease problems which can flourish on them. A wide range of pests  (aphis, caterpillars, borers, birds, etc) can attack foliage, flowers, wood or fruits. Fruit, flowers and to a lesser degree foliage and wood can be susceptible to a variety of fungal diseases. Without protection or regular spraying, the fruit crop can be decimated; or the ornamental affect of decorative fruits can be lost.

With up to 400 species, it is difficult to cover their potential in this book; however, most of them are small trees, with relatively few serious problems. Many are ideal for a small garden. If space is severely limited, they are ideal as an espalier on a wall or fence line.

The more commonly cultivated species are
P. americana (American Plum)   to 7m tall
P. amygdalus (Almond)  (syn: P. dulcis)   to 8m tall
P. armeniaca (Apricot)   to 6m tall
P. avium (Sweet Cherry)  to 8m or taller
P. cerasifera (Cherry Plum)  to 7m tall
P. cerasus (Sour Cherry)  3 to 6m tall
P. domestica (European Plum)  5 to 7m tall
P. insititia (European or Damson Plum)  5 to 6m tall
P. hortulana (American Plum)  to 8m tall
P. mume (Flowering Apricot)   to 8m tall
P. persicae (Peach)   to 6m tall
P. serrulata (Flowering Cherry)  to 16m tall
P. subhirtella var. pendula (Weeping Flowering Cherry)  to 7m tall
P. salicina (Japanese Plum)  to 7m tall

Flowering cultivars
There are many cultivars that are grown primarily for their flower. These vary in size from low plants only 1 to 2 m tall, to much taller trees.
Prunus ‘Elvins’ is a popular cultivar that arose as a seedling in Melbourne in the first half of the 20th century. It flowers very heavily, and is perhaps only up to around 3m tall.
Prunus blireana, is a much taller cultivar, grown both for its dark a purple foliage, and its pale pink blossom.

(Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina)
There are in fact several different species of plum which produce edible fruit. All are relatively easy to grow. P. domestica (the European Plum)  and P. salicina (the Japanese plum) are the main types grown. Most table or fresh fruit types (except the greengages) are Japanese plum varieties

Most European plums have a fairly high cold requirement (ie: If they don't get enough cold weather over winter, they do not produce fruit). Generally, they prefer climates similar to apples. Japanese plums on the other hand will take warmer climates and will do very well throughout most parts of southern Australia. Generally plums prefer heavier soils with good water retention properties - more than peaches and nectarines where drainage is more critical.

Plums require an annual application of general fertiliser in early spring (preferably organic or slow release) for best results. Extra feeding with potash might be needed in sandy soils (Watch for potash deficiencies).

Japanese plums tend to bear on laterals (like peaches). Prune these varieties to control growth and stimulate development of new laterals. European plums tend to bear more on spurs (like apples). Usually most fruit is on two year old wood, so do not remove spurs which are only one year old. All Japanese plums and most European plums (except Prune D'Argen) do not require cross pollination. Fruit thinning is often necessary for Japanese plums and Prune D'Argen.

*Fungal diseases include Brown Rot, Plum Rust, Silver Leaf (a wood rotting fungus). These are generally less serious on plums than on other fruit trees though.
*Viruses are perhaps the most important problem. You should only use virus free plum stock plants.
*Insect pests are not commonly a major problem.
*Birds can be a serious problem, and netting may be required.
*Fallen fruits can be messy on paths, driveways and lawns.

APRICOT  (Prunus armeniaca)
Apricots are self fertile, so it is not necessary to grow more than one variety for pollination.  Their cold requirement for adequate fruit set is about 800 hours.  This means that apricots will grow in slightly warmer climates than most other stone fruits.  They prefer a neutral soil pH, and will not tolerate waterlogging.  Poor drainage will also increase their susceptibility to Verticillium Wilt disease.  For this reason also, they should not be grown near Tomatoes, or on ground where Tomatoes have previously been grown.

One of the greatest needs of Apricots on Australian soils is Nitrogen, and regular applications of a nitrogenous fertiliser may be necessary during the growing season.
There are many pest and fungal diseases of apricots.  The most troublesome are the root and wood rotting fungi.  Pest problems include Light Brown Apple Moth and Scale.  The greatest requirements, however, are for proper feeding and good cultural practices.
The fruit has a wide variety of uses, including fresh, canned or dried fruit, juice and preserves.  Extracted seed oils also have some a use in cosmetics and health products.  This latter use, however, requires involved processing, as the seeds themselves are poisonous.

PEACH & NECTARINE    (Prunus persicae)
Nectarines are simply peaches without a fuzzy skin. Peaches and Nectarines are slightly frost sensitive, and have about the same cold requirement as Almonds.  They are particularly sensitive to waterlogging, with as little as 24 hours of soil saturation before root death begins.  This is largely due to the production of toxic root exudates by the plant.  In waterlogged soil these rapidly accumulate and poison the roots.

Peaches are lateral bearers, producing fruit on the previous season's growth.  For this reason a good supply of Nitrogen is needed for vigorous growth.  Pruning is generally to the open vase style, although the Tatura Trellis is becoming more popular.  In either case pruning is done to encourage the development of vigorous, well spaced fruiting laterals.  For good quality table peaches, pruning may need to be somewhat heavier to limit the yield and produce better sized fruit.  Manual or chemical thinning of fruit may also be required in all varieties.  Trees are usually spaced about 6 metres apart, although closer spacings have been used successfully.

Common insect pests of peaches include Light Brown Apple Moth and Two Spotted Mite.  More important are the fungal diseases   Peach Leaf Curl, Brown Rot and Peach Rust.  Peaches are also affected by a number of viruses, but hygiene and planting of virus free plants is the only way to avoid these problems.

CHERRY (Prunus avium and P. cerasus (Sour Cherry))
Cherries need cold winters and mild summers. Very hot summers are not suitable. They do not like high humidity and rain can cause damage when in full flower. Late frosts can cause problems particularly if you grow a late flowering variety. Cherries can take 5 to 7  years to bear any significant quantity of fruit. Mulching and some irrigation may be necessary over a dry summer. Roots will withstand some dryness but not for extended periods.

Spraying early in spring with Carbaryl will control aphids, pear and cherry slug and any other major pest problems. Routine sprays of a copper-based fungicide will control brown rot and other fungal problems.




Family: Myrtaceae

About 100 species of evergreen trees or shrubs, with opposite, simple leaves. Most have large, white flowers with many stamens, and globe to pear-shaped fruit which may be large and/or edible. They are grown mainly for fruit, but are useful alone as a small shade tree, or amongst other plants in a garden bed. Some cultivars may become dormant in cold winters.

They grow on a wide range of soils, but not excessively acidic ones (if pH is below 5.5, lime the soil). They will tolerate poor soils and occasional waterlogging. They are generally adaptable, though most do best in sub-tropical climates, with a dry autumn. Some will tolerate mild temperate or mediterranean climates provided they are not exposed to extreme and prolonged cold. They grow faster and larger in warmer climates. Guavas prefer full sun but many species will tolerate partial shade very well. To obtain maximum fruiting, full sun is recommended.

Prune for shape as required, and to encourage flowering. If unpruned, they can produce a dense attractive plant, but flowering and fruiting will be diminished.
Feed annually and irrigate or mulch plants well to reduce water needs in areas where rainfall is sparse.
Maintain regular fertilising and watering to maximise growth and fruiting.
Propagate from seed or by grafting for superior varieties.
Pests and diseases are minimal, though they may suffer at times from fruit fly, black spot and fruit rots.  Spray pesticides to protect fruit from infection and spoiling.

Psidium cattleianum (Strawberry Guava) - A low spreading bush or popular small tree, and very adaptable to pruning as a large hedge. Small glossy green leaves and medium sized, red, fleshy, sweet fruit. Hardy, tolerates moderate frost, produces edible fruits in winter. This is the best Guava for temperate climates.

Psidium guajava (Guava) - Preferring a tropical or sub tropical climate this small tree produces its aromatic, unusually flavoured fruit in late summer to early winter. Trees grown in temperate climates tend not to set fruit or the fruit is of poor flavor.



Family: Rosaceae

Approximately 20 species. and many varieties  of deciduous trees with pear-shaped fruits, including ornamental species as well as others grown for their edible fruit. They often have attractive gold to orange autumn foliage. Blossom in late winter or early spring can cover the tree and also be very attractive.

They thrive in full sun, and are adaptable as to soils.  They generally like similar treatment to Malus (Apple), but are often a little hardier than apples. See Malus for cultural details – their culture is virtually the same as apples.

There are many named cultivars, most growing to around 5 or 6 metres tall; but
occasionally some will grow much taller. While they are mostly varieties bred and grown for edible fruit; some have been developed as ornamental plants, grown for their blossom, colourful fruits and autumn foliage.

FRUITING PEAR  (Pyrus communis)
Pears are a pome fruit related to the apple. Pears require a similar climate and soil to apples but their flowers are more tender than apples, and the fruit more prone to wind damage. Deficiencies of manganese, boron and copper sometimes occur. Most varieties need cross pollination. Prune the same as for the apple, but not as heavy (heavy pruning encourages vigorous regrowth and reduces fruiting). Fruit thinning is normally required.
Common problems include San Jose Scale and some of the insects that also affect apples, Pear Leaf Mite, Pear & Cherry Slug, Pear Scab, Blossom Blight and Stony Pit Virus

NASHI or ASIAN PEAR  (Pyrus pyrifolia X P. ussuriensis)
Generally speaking, Nashi will grow and produce where other pears flourish although the winter chilling requirement is less (ie: It grows in warmer areas). High rainfall close to harvest can cause fruit to split. Reasonably fertile, deep, well drained soils are needed (pH 6.5). Cross pollination is strongly recommended and therefore plant at least two different varieties. Protection from wind is also very important. Trees should be planted 4 5m apart and trained with one main central trunk. Under good growing conditions and adequate cross pollination, Nashi will produce an abundance of fruit. Thinning is needed to get reasonable size fruit. Nashi suffer the same pest and disease problems as standard pears although it seems to have resistance to scab. Routine spraying is needed to get pest and disease free fruit. Birds can be a problem also. Fruit are harvested carefully when they turn yellow.

Family:  Myrtaceae

Upright plants that include trees and shrubs, often with ornamental foliage. Flowers tend to be small blossoms near the trunk and branches. Attractive berries are also eaten by animal life. It is best in tropical to subtropical zones.

Grown in full sun to partial shade locations. Provide a rich soil high in organic matter and mulch. Most specimens need regular watering. It is best to fertilise these plants with organic matter or specially blended Australian native plant foods. Pruning is only required for aesthetic purposes.

R. argentea (Malletwood/Silver Myrtle) - Growing up to 10m tall in the wild. Leaves are an attractive silver white beneath. Can be fast growing.

R. balaireana (Blair’s Malletwood) – An highly attractive small, foliage tree usually to 5m tall. New growth flushes provide a colourful contrast to the deep green mature leaves.

R. autralis (Tropical Ironwood) – An attractive spreading tree to 6m with white flowers in summer. The black globular fruit are sweet and edible.

R. maidenianna (Smooth Scrub Turpintine)  - A 4m x 2m  bushy shrub to small tree with small pink flowers and globular black berries.

Family: Caprifoliaceae

Approximately 20 species of deciduous shrubs or small trees (occasionally herbaceous perennials). Green, yellow or white divided leaves, large clusters (cymes) of generally white flowers, and black or scarlet berries. Suitable for temperate climates (eg. Melbourne). The fruit of some species is edible.

Most prefer rich, moist soils, but they are adaptable and some will tolerate dry periods. Prune for shape over winter. Pruning growth tips out in early spring can encourage bushier growth and richer colour in the foliage. Propagate by seed, cuttings and some by suckers.

S. canadensis  - To 4m tall, white flowers in mid-summer. There are many cultivars, including:
 ‘Aurea’ which has golden-yellow leaves and red fruit.
 ‘Chlorocarpa’ which has greenish coloured fruit.
 ‘Laciniata’ which has deeply dissected foliage.
 ‘Maxima’ which has larger flower clusters to around 40cm across.

S. nigra (Common Elder) - To 6m tall, with large pinnate leaves with leaflets up to 13cm long. Often considered to have an unpleasant smell if the are bruised or damaged. White early summer flowers in clusters 12-20cm across, followed by shiny, black berries which are used to make Elderberry Wine. Numerous cultivars, including
 ‘Albo-variegata’ which has leaves with a broad cream-white margin.
 ‘Aurea’ has bright yellow leaves during spring.
 ‘Laciniata’ has deeply dissected leaves.
 ‘Argentea’ has leaves nearly white in colour.



Career Opportunities

Study alone can never guarantee career success; but a good education is an important starting point.

Success in a career depends upon many things. A course like this is an excellent starting point because it provides a foundation for continued learning, and the means of understanding and dealing with issues you encounter in the workplace.

When you have completed an ACS course, you will have not only learnt about the subject, but you will have been prompted to start networking with experts in the discipline and shown how to approach problems that confront you in this field.

This and every other industry in today’s world is developing in unforeseen ways; and while that is unsettling for anyone who wants to be guaranteed a particular job at the end of a particular course; for others, this rapidly changing career environment is offering new and exciting opportunities almost every month.

If you want to do the best that you can in this industry, you need to recognise that the opportunities that confront you at the end of a course, are probably different to anything that has even been thought of when you commence a course.


Meet some of our academics

Rosemary Davies Leading horticultural expert in Australia. Rosemary trained in Horticultural Applied Science at Melbourne University. Initially she worked with Agriculture Victoria as an extension officer, taught horticulture students, worked on radio with ABC radio (clocking up over 24 years as a presenter of garden talkback programs, initially the only woman presenter on gardening in Victoria) and she simultaneously developed a career as a writer. She then studied Education and Training, teaching TAFE apprentices and developing curriculum for TAFE, before taking up an offer as a full time columnist with the Herald and Weekly Times and its magazine department after a number of years as columnist with the Age. She has worked for a number of companies in writing and publications, PR community education and management and has led several tours to Europe. In 1999 Rosemary was BPW Bendigo Business Woman of the Year and is one of the founders and the Patron, of the Friends of the Bendigo Botanic gardens. She has completed her 6th book this year and is working on concepts for several others. Rosemary has a B Ed, BSc Hort, Dip Advertising & Marketing
John Mason Parks Manager, Nurseryman, Landscape Designer, Garden Writer and Consultant. Over 40 years experience; working in Victoria, Queensland and the UK. He is one of the most widely published garden writers in the world; author of more than 70 books and editor for 4 different gardening magazines. John has been recognised by his peers being made a fellow of the Institute of Horticulture in the UK, as well as by the Australian Institute of Horticulture.
Bob JamesHorticulturalist, Agriculturalist, Environmental consultant, Businessman and Professional Writer. Over 40 years in industry, Bob has held a wide variety of senior positions in both government and private enterprise. Bob has a Dip. Animal Husb, B.App.Sc., Grad.Dip.Mgt, PDC

Check out our eBooks

Growing ConifersConifers have elegant foliage that comes in an array of colours from blues to yellows, dark to acid greens and variegations. They look great all year round and provide a garden with structure, foundation, formality and elegance, especially in winter when other plants are leafless. This is a comprehensive text covering: growing, propagation, container growing, hedges, topiary, landscaping, uses for food, timber and oils plus a directory that explores 32 conifer genera and hundreds of species. 88 colour photos 80 pages
Trees and ShrubsA great little encyclopaedia that is valuable for students, tradespeople, or the home gardener needing a quick reference when selecting garden plants. It covers the care and culture of 140 commonly grown genera of trees and shrub, plus many hundreds of species and cultivars. 169 colour photos 94 pages
Getting Work in HorticultureFind out what it is like to work in horticulture; how diverse the industry is, how to get a start, and how to build a sustainable, long term and diverse career that keeps your options broad, so you can move from sector to sector as demand and fashion changes across your working life.
Trees and Shrubs for Warm PlacesA stunning book with around 300 colour photos! A comprehensive reference to thousands of tropical plant varieties (mostly different information to the Tropical Plants book) . An classic reference for nurserymen, landscapers, interior plantscapers, horticulturists and any tropical plant enthusiasts. 209 pages