All humans have a basic desire to have their emotional needs met, one way to do this is by finding a vocation which reflects their individual personality and gives them a way to identify with others and become ‘somebody’. By doing this, individuals find a sense of ‘self’ as well as, recognition within the community, and with peers.
During their search for recognition, some adolescents are strongly motivated to make career choices that will provide them with self-fulfillment and that coincide with their values and belief systems. Not all students will be motivated to find a suitable vocation, however, using no rational or thoughtful methods for choosing a vocation at all, perhaps just falling into a position and realising later that they need to reassess their goals, aspirations and desires in order to change their self-created circumstances.
There are a number of theories on vocational development;
Ginzberg’s Compromise with Reality Theory
This states that vocational choice occurs over a long period of time and involves a number of sub-decisions that add together to form an individuals vocational choice. This theory has three distinct stages; fantasy stage (up to 11 yrs of age), tentative stage (11 to 17 yrs of age ) and the realistic stage (17+ yrs).
Holland’s Occupational Environmental Theory
This states that people choose their vocations according to their personality types, when these aspects are in balance people are more likely to remain in the field chosen. There are six distinct personality types identified by Holland; realistic, conventional, intellectual, social, enterprising and artistic.
Gati’s Sequential Elimination Model
This has been developed more recently is based on decision making theories. This theory has two main phases; pre-screening and in-depth analysis. This theory considers individual interests, abilities and values.
What Research Reveals
Studies undertaken in secondary schools have found that many factors influence choices made by adolescents. (including: personality type, gender, intelligence, aptitude, individual interest, job opportunities, salary, prestige and socio-economic status, parents and peers). Parents for example tend to exert strong influences on career choice, as they are role models for their children, and may consciously or unconsciously affect choices their children make, by encouraging or discouraging such things as hobbies, interests, playmates and schooling opportunities and expectations.
Teachers and school personnel can help or hinder the career choices made by students through their use of constructive or non-constructive criticism of a student’s knowledge and skills.
In today's world, research is showing that people are changing careers several times over their working lives. This is another significant factor which may or may not come into play increasingly over time.
Finding a vocation is becoming increasingly difficult as society becomes more complicated and transient in nature. Adolescents need to make rational and well thought out decisions when considering options for the future and their career. Seeking the advice of professionals and taking time to reflect on their own personal values and interests when deciding on a vocation which stimulates and accentuates their best attributes.
Who Should Study This Course?
This course is useful for anyone who wants to support individuals to make decisions about their future careers. For example -
- pastoral staff
- careers advisors
- advice staff
- personnel managers
- teaching assistants
- youth workers
Why Study This Course?
Add another string to your bow, train in careers counselling and support people to make decisions about their future careers.
Improve your job and career prospects.
Set up your own careers counselling business.
Study this self-paced course in the comfort of your own home. Ideal for people wanting to study at a time and location to suit them.